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This list of peer-reviewed articles is available to members of our University community and beyond as a resource on the national literature on retention. We are committed to maintaining this list and adding to it in the future. Please send recommendations of articles to include to studentsuccess@unc.edu. For additional articles on encouraging student success, please visit www.studentsuccess.unc.edu.

Abstract Points of Interest
Alessandria, K. & Nelson, E. (2005). Identity development and self-esteem of first-generation American college students: An exploratory study. Journal of College Student Development, 46(1), 3-12. Based on Chickering’s model; differences in self-esteem and identity development among first-generation American  college and non first-generation students were examined.
Barry, L., Hudley, C., Kelly, M. & Cho., S. (2009). Differences in self-reported disclosure of college experiences by first-generation college student status. Adolescence, 44(173), 55-68 Disclosure of stressful college-related experiences and resources available to reduce stress.
Choy, S. (2001). Students whose parents did not go to college: Postsecondary access, persistence, and attainment. In J. Wirt, et al. (Eds.), The condition of education (pp. xviii-xliii). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Government Printing Office. College enrollment rates vary considerably with parents’ educational attainment.
Clauss-Ehlers, C. & Wibroski, C. (2007). Building educational resilience and social support:  The effects of the educational opportunity fund program among first- and second-generation college students. Journal of College Student Development, 48(5), 574-584. Educators and psychologists gain a better understanding of how to promote resiliency. Explores students’ resiliency in the face of economic, social and cultural barriers.
Collier, P. & Morgan D. (2008). Is that paper really due today?: Differences in first-generation and traditional college students’ understandings of faculty expectations. Higher Education. 55, 425-446 Master the “college student” role in order to understand instructors’ expectations and apply their academic skills.
Engle, J. & Tinto, V. (2008). Moving beyond access: College success for low-income, first-generation students. Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education. What is beyond the surface of access to higher education?
Ghazzawi, I. & Jagannathan, C. (2011).Bridging the gap: The role of outreach programs in granting college access to first generation students. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 15(1), 117-137 Programs that targets first-generation students to help bridge their path to college.
Giancola, J., Munz, D. & Trares, S. (2008). First- versus continuing-generation adult students on college perceptions: Are differences actually because of demographic variance? Adult Education Quarterly, 58(3),  214–228. Profile of changing students from first generation to continuing adult students.
Hahs-Vaughn, D. (2004). The impact of parents’ education level on college students: An analysis using the beginning post secondary students longitudinal study 1990-92/94. Journal of College Student Development, 45(5), 483-500. Expected highest level of education, entrance exam score, nonacademic experiences, and aspirations for education for first generation students.
Ishitani, T. (2003). A longitudinal approach to assessing attrition behavior among first-generation students:  time-varying effects of pre-college characteristics. Research in Higher Education. 44(4), 433-449. Unique challenges of first-generation students toward degree attainment.
Ishitani, T. (2006). Studying attrition and degree completion behavior among first-generation college students in the United States. The Journal of Higher Education, 77(5), 861-885. Why certain groups of individuals are less likely to attend and graduate from American institutions of higher education and less likely to enjoy the benefits.
Kim, Young K. & Sax, L. (2009). Student-faculty interaction in research universities:  Differences by student gender, race, social class, and first-generation status. Research in Higher Education, 50(5), 437-459. Does faculty-student interaction affect GPA, degree aspiration and critical thinking?
Kurotsuchi Inkelas, K., Daver, Z., Vogt, K. & Brown, J. (2007). Living-learning programs and first-generation college students’ academic and social transition to college. Research in Higher Education, 48(4), 403-434. Role of living-learning programs in facilitating first-generation students’ perceived academic and social transition to college.
Mamiseishvili, K. (2010). Effects of employment on persistence of low-income, first-generation college students. College Student Affairs Journal, 29(1), 65-74. The effects of employment on first to second-year persistence of low-income, first-generation college students.
Macias, L. V. (2013). Choosing Success: A paradigm for empowering first-generation college students.  About Campus. 18(5), 17-21. Louis V. Macias reminds us that educators’ attitudes toward first-generation students have a great impact on their eventual success … or failure. Are you serving the best interests of your students with an inspirational, success-oriented mind-set that considers all of their capabilities?
McCarron, G. & Inkelas, K. (2006). The gap between educational aspirations and attainment for first- generation college students and the role of parental involvement. Journal of College Student Development, 47(5), 534-549.
Role of parental involvement and the connection between educational aspirations. Differences in educational attainment by race/ethnicity, gender and socioeconomic status.
Owens, D., Lacey, K., Rawls, G. & Holbert-Quince, J. (2010). First-generation African American male college students:  Implications for career counselors. The Career Development Quarterly, 58, 291-300. Roadblocks and obstacles encountered by African American men toward upward mobility and economic success.
Pascarella, E., Pierson, C., Wolniak, G. & Terenzini, P. (2004). First-generation college students:  Additional evidence on college experiences and outcomes. Journal of Higher Education, 75(3), 249‑284. Differences between first generation and other college students’ experiences and outcomes.
Reason, R., Terezini, P., & Domingo, R. (2006). First things first:  Developing academic competence in the first year of college. Research in Higher Education, 47(2), 149-175. Two-thirds of the knowledge and college skill development occurs in the first 2 years of college. Identifying the individual, organizational, environmental, programmatic, and policy factors that shape academic competence.
Terenzini, P., Springer, L., Yaeger, P., Pascarella, E. & Nora, A. (1996). First-generation college students: Characteristics, experiences, and cognitive development. Research in Higher Education, 37(1), 1-22. Do the pre-college characteristics of first-generation students differ from those of traditional students?  Do first-generation students’ college experiences differ from those of other students?  What are the educational consequences of any differences on first-year gains in students’ reading, math, and critical-thinking abilities?
Vuong, M., Brown-Welty, S. & Tracz, S. (2010). The effects of self-efficacy on academic success of first-generation college sophomore students. Journal of College Student Development, 51(1), 50-64. Academic success and persistence rates between first-generation and second and beyond generation college sophomore students. Relationship between g.p.a. and persistence rates.
Wohn, D. Y.,  Ellison, N. B., Khan, M. L., Fewins-Bliss, R. & Gray, R. (April 2013).The role of social media in shaping first-generation high school students’ college aspirations: A social capital lens. Computers & Education, 63, 424-436. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
This study used survey data from a diverse set of high school students (N = 504).  First-generations have less parental support than non first-generations.  Parents, close friends, and Facebook Friends play different roles in college aspirations. Seeking info on social media increased application efficacy for first-generations. Knowing someone who attended college on Facebook increased expectation of college success for first-generations.

Compiled by the 2012 Intern for Undergraduate Retention